Neolithic Sites in Ireland
| Ireland is home to a wealth of Neolithic and megalithic sites ranging from tombs like Newgrange to standing stones, dolmens and fairy forts. Interest in these ancient places peaks around the Summer Solstice, when the midsummer sun brings their secrets to life.|
The Summer Solstice falls on June 21st in Ireland. This is the longest day of the year, when the Sun is at its highest point of the year in the northern hemisphere. In ancient pagan societies the Summer Solstice was hugely significant, it was a time when the power of the Sun was at its highest and was seen as an important time for fertility, when the harvests of the coming year were blessed.
This significance is mirrored in the places of worship and burial sites, from standing stones to pyramids and tombs, that Neolithic pagan cultures built throughout the world and many were designed in alignment with the sun at this sacred time of the year, when the sun was at its most powerful.
There are some 40,000 ancient megalithic and Neolithic sites across the British Isles and Ireland, from burial chambers, to stone circles and former dwellings of ancient societies.
Ireland's most prominent Neolithic site is Newgrange an ancient passage tomb, dating back nearly 5,000 years, predating the Egyptian pyramids by 6 centuries. Newgrange is the best example of a Stone Age passage tomb in Ireland and one of the most remarkable prehistoric sites in Europe. The burial mound is some 80m in diameter and 13m high, and is similar to sites built around the same time at Maes Howe in Orkney and Carnac in Britanny. The purpose of Newgrange is unsure, is it a burial place of kings? A centre of ritual? or an astrological calendar? Which like Stonehenge is in alignment with the sun during the solstice.
Over 200,000 tonnes of earth and stone were used in the construction of Newgrange, with stones believed to have been quarried and transported from Wicklow, 80km to the south and the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland. Newgrange also plays a role in Irish Mythology, as the burial place of the lovers Dairmuid and Grainne, as well as the place where the great warrior Cuchulainn was conceived.
Newgrange is one of a number of Neolithic sites within a hugely significant area known as Bru Na Boinne - the Boyne Palace. Other similar burial structures can be found at Knowth and Dowth, where archaeological excavations are currently ongoing. These excavations unearthed at Knowth, what is regarded as the greatest collection of passage grave art in Western Europe. Knowth has been an important site throughout many periods, as a burial site from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age, a ring fort of the early Celts and even a motte and bailey built by the Normans in the 12th Century.
Also close by, are the important ancients sites of the Hill of Tara and the Hill of Slane. Commanding a sweeping view across the plains of Meath, Tara is hugely significant in Irish folklore. Tara was once the political and religious centre of Ireland, the High Kings of Ireland held court here, and Tara was associated with the pagan goddess Maeve. On the northern side of the valley is the Hill of Slane, where huge pagan festivals were held and where one of St Patrick's legendary feats is said to have took place. It was while converting the pagans here that St Patrick plucked a shamrock from the ground to explain the Holy Trinity, after which the Hill of Slane was covered in shamrocks, which was later adopted as the Irish national symbol.
Though, Bru Na Boinne and Newgrange are Ireland's most celebrated Neolithic sites, they are not the country's oldest. In County Sligo there are the remnants of ancient burial sites predating Newgrange by 700 years. The Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery covers some 5km square and is one of the largest Stone Age cemeteries in Europe. The site contains some 60 dolmens, passage tombs and stones, though many are on private farmland. Carrowmore is also linked with nearby Carrowkeel and Carrowmore is situated at a central point between ancient stone cairns on top of surrounding mountains.
Further down the western seaboard, prehistoric burial sites have also been discovered in the rugged Burren area of Co. Clare, most notably the Poulnabrone Dolmen. This portal tomb is one of Ireland's most photographed Neolithic sites, recognised on many a postcard and dates back over 5000 years. In 1986 the site was excavated and the remains of 16 people were found, dating back to 3800 BC.
Further south just 18km from Limerick City on the shores of Lough Gur are the remains of an early settlement dating back 4000 years. The site includes The Lois a stone circle of some 113 stones, the largest of its kind in Ireland along with numerous burial mounds, wedge tombs and standing stones. A thatched replica of a Neolithic dwelling houses the Lough Gur Interpretive Centre, with a display of artefacts including a replica of the famous Lough Gur Shield (original housed in Dublin) dating back to 700BC.
Many of Ireland's ancient sites can be found in coastal areas. The Aran Islands off the Galway coast are famed for their archaeological sites, most notably the 2000-year-old Iron Age fort of Dun Aengus, on Inish Mor. While the coast of West Cork is dotted with standing stones and stone circles. One of the more prominent of these is the Drombeg Stone Circle, overlooking the sea just outside the fishing port of Glandore. The site also features the remains of a fulachta fiadh, an Iron Age cooking pit. On the Beara Peninsula just outside Castletownbere is another impressive monument, the Derrennataggart Stone Circle, consisting 10 upright stones.
Ireland's archaeological finds and Neolithic sites attract thousands of visitors each year, if you want to visit any of these sites on your vacation to Ireland ask one of our vacation specialists for details.
Situated eight kilometres east of the village of Slane, the Passage Grave of Newgrange is regarded by some as one of the greatest wonders of the ancient world.
As well as the less famous Knowth and Dowth, Newgrange boasts the fact that it is older than Stonehenge and the Pyramids of Egypt, having survived over five thousand years. Almost ninety metres in diameter and eleven metres in height and covering an area of almost one acre, the main burial mound of Newgrange is surrounded by the remains of three smaller passage graves. It is situated on a low hill and commands breathtaking views of the Boyne Valley. The passage only extends for a quarter of the total diameter of the mound. It opens out into a central chamber with three adjoining smaller chambers to the west, east and north.
One of the main reasons for the importance and fame of Newgrange is its richness in megalithic art which can be seen all over the chamber especially on the east recess. The most remarkable feature of Newgrange, however, is the roof-box over the entrance which, at first glance, seems insignificant. However, its precise alignment and location reveals the incredible depths of knowledge which this ancient civilization possessed. It measures 90cm by 1m and is perfectly aligned to catch the first rays of the rising sun on the morning of the winter solstice on the 21st of December. On that morning the rays of the sun pass through the roof-box, make their way down the passage-way and light up the central chamber for about fifteen minutes after which the passage and chamber are once again engulfed in darkness. Bru na Boinne Bru na Boinne Visitor Centre, open in 1997, is designed to present the archaeological heritage of the Boyne Valley, which includes the megalithic passage tombs of Newgrange and Knowth. The Centre is the starting point for all visits to both monuments, and contains extensive interpretative displays and viewing areas. All visitors wishing to visit Newgrange and Knowth must begin their visit at the Visitor Centre. There is no direct access to these monuments.
All admission tickets are issued at the Bru na Boinne Visitor Centre.
* Last tour of monuments 1hour 30mins before closing time of the Centre.
* Last admission to Visitor Centre 45 mins before closing.
* All groups of 15 or more must book in advance.
Please note that this is a very busy site and visitors must expect a delay in the summer months if visiting Newgrange and Knowth and access is not guaranteed. Groups which have pre-booked are expected at Bru na Boinne Visitor Centre at the appointed time, not at the monuments.
Hill of Tara
Though best known as the seat of the High Kings of Ireland, the Hill of Tara has been an important site since the late Stone Age when a passage-tomb was constructed there. Tara was at the height of its power as a political and religious centre in the early centuries after Christ. Attractions include an audio-visual show and guided tours of the site. Exciting new research and excavations by the Discovery Programme team continue to add to our understanding of the site.
As much of the tour is outdoors, visitors are advised to wear protective clothing and shoes suitable for walking over uneven terrain. Restricted access for people with disabilities. Carrowmore Megalithic CemeteryThis is the largest cemetery of megalithic tombs in Ireland and is also among the country's oldest. Over 60 tombs have been located by archaeologists - the oldest pre-date Newgrange by some 700 years. A restored cottage houses a small exhibition relating to the site.
Restricted access in centre for people with disabilities (Tombs are inaccessible to people with disabilities). Visitors are advised to wear shoes suitable for walking on uneven terrain.
The Burren, situated in north-west County Clare, covers over 300 square kilometres and is of extreme importance to geologists, botanists and archaeologists from Ireland and beyond. As the largest karstic limestone area in Western Europe, the Burren is an anomaly in the Irish landscape and continues to fascinate geologists who come to study its limestone patterns, underground rivers and grykes (cracks).
To the botanist, the Burren is home to rare alpine plants, delicate wonders that grow in the thin soil and crevices - gentians, mountain avens and maidenhair ferns amongst others. The survival of both alpine and Mediterranean plants in this unusual habitat continues to arouse debate and to delight the careful walker.
Those interested in the ancient history of Ireland will find a wealth of material in the Burren - megalithic tombs, Celtic crosses, a ruined Cistercian Abbey and more than sixty wedge tombs. Detailed maps of the Burren, such as that by the famous Irish map-maker Tim Robinson, are dotted with sites of archaeological interest, as well as the potholes which attract more and more adventure-seekers each year.
Walkers on the Burren Way enjoy a route along dry, hard limestone paths with spectacular views north towards the Aran Islands and Galway Bay. Dun Aonghasa The spectacular stone fort of Dun Aonghasa is perched on the cliff edge of Aran Island; Inishmore, dating back over two and a half thousand years, beaten by the constant swell of the Atlantic Ocean.
Dun Aonghasa is one of the most important and distinctive ancient sites of Ireland. A huge ancient ring fort seemingly cut in half by the sheer cliff face of Inishmore, at the mercy of the elements and the encroaching Atlantic Ocean. The late Bronze Age fort is a succession of stone enclosures covering some 14 acres, protected by an outer defence of jagged stone known as a Chevaux de frise. The outer enclosure spans far and wide and would have protected livestock, whereas the middle and inner enclosures were more defensive in purpose. The inner wall measures some 5m in width and would have been 6m high; it took some 6,500 tonnes of stone to build. At the heart of the fort, situated right on the cliff edge is a rock platform, which formed the focal point in the rituals and lives of those who dwelt here.
Little is known of the fort's original inhabitants, recent excavations date the earliest human inhabitation as around 1500BC - 1000AD, though the most important period is believed to have been around 800BC. It is believed to have been the political and ritual centre for a group of peoples of common ancestry and only those elite members would have lived at Dun Aonghasa. However the name of Aonghasa comes from a much later period of the 5th Century when the fort was again inhabited. It is believed the name is associated with that of Aonghus Mac Natfraich, King of Cashel in the 5th Century, who had dynastic connections with Aran.
Dun Aonghasa is a fascinating sight; an atmospheric place with unrestricted views along the battered Atlantic coastline of Inishmore and is the most prominent sight of the Aran Islands
Easter Rising of 1916
On 24 April 1916, Patrick Pearse stood outside the General Post Office in Dublin and read a proclamation announcing the establishment of an Irish republic under a provisional government. Among the seven signatories of the proclamation was James Connolly, head of the para-military Irish Citizen Army, who had earlier led a successful occupation of the building. Elsewhere in Dublin, armed men had taken over key points such as the Four Courts, the College of Surgeons overlooking St Stephen's Green, and Boland's Mills. It was Easter Monday, and there were few people in the centre of Dublin to witness the rising. Many army officers had gone to the Fairyhouse races. Almost all the revolutionary leaders were members of the secret Irish Republican Brotherhood. The outbreak of war had persuaded them that in England's difficulties lay Ireland's opportunity. As earlier rebels had looked to France for help, they now turned to Germany, which promised to send arms. In addition to the small Irish Citizen Army, formed in 1913 to defend workers against police harassment, there were thousands of Irish Volunteers, a body formed in response to the Ulster Volunteer Force. Like the UVF, the Volunteers carried out a successful gun-running exploit, landing arms at Howth, near Dublin, a few days before war was declared. The Volunteers had been infiltrated by members of the IRB, which had secretly fixed Easter Sunday as the date for the rising. The Volunteers' leader, Eoin MacNeill, only discovered the plan on 20 April. Two days later, he learned that a German ship bringing arms had been scuttled. Realising that a rising was doomed to failure, he cancelled all Volunteer manoeuvres. Despite this setback, and knowing that their forces would be limited to a modest number of Dublin Volunteers as well as the ICA, Pearse and Connolly decided that a rising must take place, if only as a 'blood sacrifice' to arouse the Irish people. In different circumstances the rebels might have been treated more mercifully, but Britain was at war, and the army and police had suffered geater casualties than Pearse's men. Ireland was still under martial law, and Maxwell was at liberty to inflict retribution. On 3 May, just four days after the surrender, a terse announcement was made that Pearse and two other signatories of the republican proclamation had been tried by court martial and shot. By 12 May the total of executions had reached fifteen, including Connolly and the three other signatories. Another seventy-five rebels had the death penalty commuted to penal servitude, including Countess Constance Markievicz, who would later become the first woman elected to the Westminster parliament. In halting the executions, the government was responding to a wave of public revulsion, but the damage had been done. Ireland had a new gallery of martyrs, and earlier apathy or even hostility towards republicanism was replaced by sympathy for the independence cause. Of some 3 ,400 arrested following the surrender, more than half were imprisoned or interned in England, where they plotted a new onslaught on British rule.
Leaders of Ireland
Ireland has had a long list of rulers, from the ancient Kings of the provinces, the High Kings, the current polititians and of course, the British. Some dates overlap, for example King George vi was officially still King of all Ireland until 1949 while at the same time we has our first President in 1938.
1938 - 1945 Douglas Hyde
The first President - Dr Douglas Hyde1945 - 1959 Sean Thomas O'Kelly
1959 - 1973 Eámon de Valera
1973 - 1974 Erskin Childers
1974 - 1976 Cearbhall O'Dalaigh
1976 - 1990 Patrick Hillery
1990 - 1997 Mary Robinson
1997 - Mary McAleese
Chairmen of the Provisional Government
1922 Michael Collins
1922 William Cosgrave
1922 - 1932 William Cosgrave
1932 - 1948 Eámon de Valera
1948 - 1951 John Costello
1951 - 1954 Eámon de Valera (2nd term)
1954 - 1957 John Costello (2nd term)
1957 - 1959 Eámon de Valera (3rd term)
1959 - 1966 Sean Lemass
1966 - 1973 Jack Lynch
1973 - 1977 Liam Cosgrave
1977 - 1979 Jack Lynch (2nd term)
1979 - 1981 Charles Haughey
(in 1992 local TD Albert Reynolds was elected Taoiseach)1981 - 1982 Garret FitzGerald
1982 Charles Haughey (2nd term)
1982 - 1987 Garret FitzGerald (2nd term)
1987 - 1992 Charles Haughey (3rd term)
1992 - 1994 Albert Reynolds
1994 - 1997 John Bruton
1997 - 2008 Bertie Ahern
2008 - Brian Cowen
From the 1528 to our independence in 1922 we were ruled by a Lord Lieutenant (sometimes called Viceroy or Lord Deputy) who were the King/Queens representative in Ireland (Lord Justices ruled when there was no one appointed to the post).
They were: The Kingdom of Ireland 1528 Piers Butler, 1st Earl of Ossory (Lord Deputy) 1529 Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset 1534 William Skeffington (Lord Deputy): 30 July 1534 1536 Lord Leonard Grey 1540 Lords Justices 1540 Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy): 1548 Edward Bellingham (Lord Deputy) 1549 Lords Justices: 27 December 1549 1550 Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy) 1551 James Croft (Lord Deputy) 1552 Lords Justices 1553 Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy) 1556 Thomas Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter (Lord Deputy) 1558 Lords Justices 1559 Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex (Lord Deputy) 1565 Henry Sidney (Lord Deputy) 1571 Lord Justice: 1 April 1571 1571 William Fitzwilliam (Lord Deputy) 1575 Henry Sidney (Lord Deputy) 1570 Lord Justice: 27 April 1578 1580 Arthur Grey, 14th Lord Grey de Wilton (Lord Deputy) 1582 Lords Justices 1584 John Perrot (Lord Deputy) 1588 William Fitzwilliam (Lord Deputy) 1594 William Russell (Lord Deputy) 1597 Thomas Burgh, Lord Burgh (Lord Deputy) 1597 Lords Justices 1599 Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex 1599 Lords Justices 1600 Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy (Lord Deputy) 1604 Sir Arthur Chichester (Lord Deputy) 1615 Sir Oliver St John: 2 July 1615 1622 Henry Cary, 1st Viscount of Falkland (Lord Deputy) 1629 Lords Justices 1633 Thomas Wentworth, 1st Viscount Wentworth (Lord Deputy) 1640 Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford 1641 Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester 1643 James Butler, 1st Marquess of Ormonde 1646 Philip Sydney, Lord Lisle 1648 James Butler, 1st Marquess of Ormonde 1649 Oliver Cromwell 1650 Henry Ireton (Lord Deputy) 1652 Charles Fleetwood (Commander-in-Chief) 1657 Henry Cromwell (Lord Deputy) 1659 Edmund Ludlow (Commander-in-Chief) 1660 George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle 1662 James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde 1668 Thomas Butler, Earl of Ossory (Lord Deputy) 1669 John Robartes, 2nd Baron Robartes 1670 John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton 1672 Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex 1677 James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde 1685 Lords Justices 1685 Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon 1687 Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell (Lord Deputy) 1689 King James II himself in Ireland 1690 King William III himself in Ireland 1690 Lords Justices 1692 Henry Sydney, 1st Viscount Sydney 1693 Lords Justices 1695 Henry Capell, 1st Baron Capell (Lord Deputy) 1696 Lords Justices
The eloquently titled Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1801 Philip Yorke, 3rd Earl of Hardwicke 1805 Edward Clive, 1st Earl of Powis (did not serve) 1806 John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford 1807 Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond 1813 Charles Whitworth, 1st Viscount Whitworth 1817 Charles Chetwynd Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot 1821 Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley 1828 Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey 1829 Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland 1830 Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey 1833 Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley 1835 Thomas Hamilton, 9th Earl of Haddington 1835 Constantine Henry Phipps, 6th Earl of Mulgrave 1839 Hugh Fortescue, Viscount Ebrington 1841 Thomas Philip de Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey: 11 September 1841 1844 William à Court, 1st Baron Heytesbury 1846 John William Ponsonby, 4th Earl of Bessborough 1847 George William Frederick Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon 1852 Archibald William Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton 1853 Edward Granville Eliot, 3rd Earl of St Germans 1855 George William Frederick Howard, 7th Earl of Carlisle 1858 Archibald William Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton 1859 George William Frederick Howard, 7th Earl of Carlisle 1864 John Wodehouse, 3rd Baron Wodehouse 1866 James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Abercorn 1868 John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer 1874 James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn 1876 John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough 1880 Francis Thomas de Grey Cowper, 7th Earl Cowper 1882 John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer 1885 Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon 1886 John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen 1886 Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry 1889 Lawrence Dundas, 3rd Earl of Zetland 1892 Robert Offley Ashburton Milnes, 2nd Baron Houghton 1895 George Henry Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan 1902 William Humble Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley 1905 John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen 1915 Ivor Churchill Guest, 2nd Baron Wimborne 1918 John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Viscount French of Ypres 1921 Edmund Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent
From 1922 to 1938 the Crown Representativeof the Irish Free State was a Governer General – appointed by the British Parliament until 1927 and by the Dáil from 1927 to 1938 Holders of the post were
1922 Tim Healy, KC
1928 James McNeill
1932 Domhnall Ua Buachalla
Now lets go tho the Kings of Ireland (this record is widely disputed and can only be considered fairly accurate from the time of Niall of the Nine Hostages onwards)
|Heber and Heremon|| |
|Heber and Heremon were the sons of Milesius of Spain and shortly after the death of their father, along with their six brothers, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia (now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts of Ireland or lnis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances before they could land: occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danann, to obstruct their landing; for, by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Milé in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many other names it had before, was called "Muc-Inis or "The Hog Island"); and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. That part of the fleet commanded by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving, brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, fought and routed the three Tuatha-de Danann Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha-de-Danann) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the Clan-na-Milé in their new conquest; who, having thus sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithe (who had been slain by the inhabitants of Ireland), gained the possession of the country foretold them by Cachear, some ages past. Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their Arch-priest, Druid, or magician; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their reign), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus Mór MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon - so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time.|
|Heremon||Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardeath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamore in the King's County), where Heber was slain by Heremon; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, likewise slain by Heremon. Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz.: the south part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber's four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and Fergna; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir's only son Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh, Galian, now called Leinster, be gave to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders; and the west part, now called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his commanders; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber's sons. From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying without issue), are descended all the Milesian Irish of Ireland and Scotland, viz.: from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory - the descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). From Heremon, the youngest of the three brothers, were descended one hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus Mór MacEarea, down to the Stuarts; and the Kings and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to tile present time. The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na-Milé, as not being descended from Milesius, but from his uncle Ithe; of whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland and many provincial or half provincial Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued there accordingly.|
|Muimhne||Joint rule by Muimhne, Luighne, and Laighne, sons of Heremon.|
|Joint rule of four sons of Heber for one-half of a year. They were slain by Irial Faidh, son of Heremon.|
| ||Nuadhat Neacht|| |
|Ruled for one-half a year.|
|Irial Faidh|| |
|Son of Heremon. This was a very learned King; could foretell things to come; and caused much of the country to be cleared of the ancient forests. He likewise built seven royal palaces, viz., Rath Ciombaoith, Rath Coincheada, Rath Mothuig, Rath Buirioch, Rath Luachat, Rath Croicne, and Rath Boachoill. He won four remarkable battles over his enemies: - Ard Inmath, at Teabtha, where Stirne, the son of Dubh, son of Fomhar, was slain; the second battle was at Teanmhuighe, against the Fomhoraice, where Eichtghe, their leader, was slain; the third was the battle of Loch Muighe, where Lugrot, the son of Moghfeibhis, was slain; and the fourth was the battle of Cuill Martho, where the four sons of Heber were defeated. Irial died in the second year after this battle, having reigned 10 years, and was buried at Magh Muagh.|
|Son of Irial Faidh. Slain by Conmaol, the son of Heber Fionn, at the battle of Soirrean, in Leinster, B.C. 1650. This also was a learned King, he wrote with his own hand the History of the Gaels (or Gadelians); in his reign seven large woods were cleared and much advance made in the practice of agriculture.|
|The fifth and youngest son of Heber. He was the first king of Ireland from Munster. Having been thirty years in the sovereignty of Ireland, fell, in the battle of Aenach Macha, by Tighernmas.|
|Son of Follach (Follaig) (Foll-Aich), son of Eithrial (11). Reigned 77 years; according to Keating, he reigned but 50 years; he fought twenty-seven battles with the followers of the family of Heber Fionn, all which he gained. In his reign gold was mined near the Liffey, and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. This King also made a law that each grade of society should be known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel: - the clothes of a slave should be of one colour; those of a soldier of two; the dress of a commanding officer to be of three colours; a gentleman's dress, who kept a table for the free entertainment of strangers, to be of four colours; five colours to be allowed to the nobility (the chiefs); and the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as well as the Druids, historians, and other learned men to wear six colours. This King died, B.C. 1543, on the Eve of 1st of November, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght (or Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring the Sun-God, Crom Cruach (a quo Macroom). Historians say this Monarch was the first who introduced image worship in Ireland.|
|Eochaidh Eadghadhach|| |
|Son of Daire. He was called Eochaidh Eadghadhach because it was by him the variety of colour was first put on clothes in Ireland, to distinguish the honour of each by his raiment, from the lowest to the highest. Thus was the distinction made between them: one colour in the clothes of slaves; two in the clothes of soldiers; three in the clothes of goodly heroes, or young lords of territories; six in the clothes of ollavs; seven in the clothes of kings and queens. Killed by Cearmna, son of Ebric, in the battle of Teamhair Tara.|
|Cearmna Finn|| |
|Joint rule by two sons of Ebric, son of Heber, son of Ir, son of Milesius. They divided Ireland between them into two parts: Sobhairce resided in the north, at Dun Sobhairce; and Cearmna in the south, at Dun Cearmna. These were the first kings of Ireland of the race of Ir.|
|Eochaidh Faebhar Ghlas|| |
|Son of Conmael (12).|
| Fiacha Labhrainne || |
|Descended from Heremon, slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber, at the battle of Carman. During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy. Fiacha at length (B.C. 1448) fell in the battle of Bealgadain, by the hands of Eochaidh Mumho, the son of Moefeibhis, of the race of Heber Fionn.|
|Eochaidh Mumho|| |
|Son of Mofebis (Mafebbis), son of Eochaidh Faebhar Ghlas (17).|
|Aengus Olmucadha|| |
|Son of Fiacha Labhrainne. In his reign the Picts again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them 250 years before, by Heremon, but this Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute. Aongus was at length slain by Enna, in the battle of Carman, B.C. 1409.|
|Enna Airgtheach|| |
|Son of Eochaidh Mumho (19).|
|Son of Maen (Moen), son of Aengus Olmucadha (20). Slain, B.C. 1357, by Sedne (or Seadhna), of the Line of Ir.|
|Son of Art, son of Airtri, son of Eibhric, son of Heber, son of Ir. Slew Rotheacta and, mounting his throne, became Monarch. It was during his reign that the Dubhloingeas or "pirates of the black fleet" came to plunder the royal palace of Cruachan in Roscommon, and the King was slain, in an encounter with those plunderers, by his own son and successor, who mistook his father for a pirate chief whom he had slain and whose helmet he wore.|
|Fiacha Fionn Scothach|| |
|Son of Sedna (23). So called from the abundance of white flowers with which every plain in Erinn abounded during his reign; was born in the palace of Rath-Cruachan, B.C. 1402; and slain, B.C. 1332, in the 20th year of his reign, by Munmoin, of the Line of Heber.|
|Son of Cas Clothach, son of Fear Arda, son of Roitheachtaigh (22), son of Rossa, son of Glas, son of Nuadha, son of Eochaidh Faebhar Ghlas (17). Died of the plague.|
|Son of Muineamhon (25). He was the first king that ordered his nobility to wear gold rings on their fingers,|
|Eochaidh Ollamh Fodhla|| |
|Son of Ficha Finscothach (24). It was this Monarch who first instituted the Feis Teamhrach (or "Parliament of Tara"), which met about the time called "Samhain" (or 1st of November) for making laws, reforming general abuses, revising antiquities, genealogies, and chronicles, and purging them from all corruption and falsehood that might have been foisted into them since the last meeting. This Triennial Convention was the first Parliament of which we have any record on the face of the globe; and was strictly observed from its first institution to A.D. 1172; and, even as late as A.D. 1258, we read in our native Annals of an Irish Parliament, at or near Newry. He built Mur Ollamhan at Teamhair (which means "Ollamh's fort at Tara"); he also appointed a chieftain over every cantred and a brughaidh over every townland. According to some chroniclers, "Ulster" was first called Uladh, from Ollamh Fodhla. His posterity maintained themselves in the Monarchy of Ireland for 250 years, without any of the two other septs of Heber and Heremon intercepting them. He died at an advanced age at his own Mur (or house) at Tara, leaving five sons.|
|Son of Ollamh Fodhla (27). Died of the plague.|
|Son of Ollamh Fodhla. Died in the banqueting hall at Tara.|
|Gedhe Ollghothach|| |